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Strong's Introduction Pages and Abbreviation List

A CONCISE DICTIONARY OF THE WORDS IN
THE GREEK TESTAMENT AND THE HEBREW BIBLE
WITH THEIR RENDERINGS IN THE
AUTHORIZED ENGLISH VERSION
BY
JAMES STRONG, S.T.D., LL.D.

THE GREEK TESTAMENT

PLAN OF THE BOOK

1. All the original words are treated in their alphabetical Greek order, and are numbered regularly from the first to the last, each being known throughout by its appropriate number. This renders reference easy without recourse to the Greek characters.
2. Immediately after each word is given its exact equivalent in English letters, according to the system of transliteration laid down in the scheme here following, which is substantially that adopted in the Common English Version, only more consistently and uniformly carried out; so that the word could readily be turned back again into Greek from the form thus given it.
3. Next follows the precise pronunciation, according to the usual English mode of sounding syllables, so plainly indicated that none can fail to apprehend and apply it. The most approved sounds are adopted, as laid down in the annexed scheme of articulation, and in such a way that any good Grcist would immediately recognise the word if so pronounced, notwithstanding the minor variations current among scholars in this respect.
4. Then ensues a tracing of the etymology, radical meaning, and applied significations of the word, justly but tersely analyzed and expressed, with any other important peculiarities in this regard.
5. In the case of proper names, the same method is pursued, and at this point the regular mode of Anglicizing it, after the general style of the Common English Version, is given, and a few words of explanation are added to identify it.
6. Finally (after the punctuation-mark:) are given all the different renderings of the word in the Authorized English Version, arranged in the alphabetical order of the leading terms, and conveniently condensed according to the explanations given below.
By searching out these various renderings in the MAIN CONCORDANCE, to which this Dictionary is designed as a companion, and noting the passages to which the same number corresponding to that of any given Greek word is attached in the marginal column, the reader, whether acquainted with the original language or not, will obtain a complete Greek Concordance also, expressed in the words of the Common English Version. This is an advantage which no other Concordance or Lexicon affords.

GREEK ARTICULATION

THE following explanations are sufficient to show the mode of writing and pronouncing Greek words in English adopted in this Dictionary.

1. The Alphabet is as follows:

1.       A       a        Alpha (al-fah)                    a, as in Arm or mAn *
2.       B       b        Bēta (bay-tah)                   b
3.       G       g       Gamma (gam-mah)          g hard
4.       D       d        Dĕlta (del-tah)                   d
5.       E       e        Ĕpsilŏn (ep-see-lon)         ĕ, as in mEt
6.       Z       z        Zēta (dzay-tah)                  z, as in aDZe
7.       H       h        Ēta (ay-tah)                       ē, as in thEy
8.       Q       q       Thēta (thay-tah)                 th, as in THin
9.        I       i        Iōta (ee-o-tah)                    i, as in machIne║
10.      K      k       Kappa (cap-pah)                k
11.      L      l        Lambda (lamb-dah)           l
12.      M     m         Mu (moo)                            m
13.      N      n        Nu (noo)                              n
14.      X      x         Xi (ksee)                              x = ks
15.      O      o        Omikrŏn (om-e-cron)         ŏ, as in not
16.      P      p        Pi (pee)                                p
17.      R      r        Rhō (hro)                             r
18.      S      s        Sigma (sig-mah)                s sharp
19.      T      t        Tau (tŏw)                              t
20.      U      u        Upsilŏn (u-pse-lon)             u, as in fUll
21.      F      f       Phi (fee)                                ph = f
22.      C      c       Chi (khee)                             German ch*
23.      Y      y       Psi (psee)                             ps
24.      W      w       Omĕga (o-meg-ah)             ō, as in nO.

ABBREVIATIONS EMPLOYED (THIS LIST CONTAINS MISTAKES AND DOES NOT APPLY UNIVERSALLY)

abst. = abstract (-ly)
acc. = accusative (case)
adv. = adverb (-ial) (-ly)
aff. = affinity
alt. = alternate (-ly)
anal. = analogy
app. = apparent (-ly)
caus. = causative (-ly)
cer. = ceremony, ceremonial (-ly)
Chald. = Chaldee
Chr. = Christian
coll. = collective (-ly)
comp. = comparative, comparatively, compare, compound (-s)
concr. = concrete (-ly)
corr. = corresponding
dat. = dative (case)
der. = derivation, derivative, derived
dim. = diminutive
dir. = direct (-ly)
E. = East
eccl. = ecclesiastical (-ly)
Eg. = Egypt (-ian)
ell. = ellipsis, elliptical (-ly)
eq. = equivalent
esp. = especially
euph. = euphemism, euphemistic, euphemistically
ext. = extension
fem. = feminine
fig. = figurative (-ly)
for. = foreign
gen. = genitive (case)
Gr. = Greek
Heb. = Hebraism, Hebrew
i.e. = id est, that is
imper. = imperative
imperf. = imperfect
impers. = impersonal (-ly)
impl. = implication, implied
incl. = including
ind. = indicative (-ly)
indiv. = individual (-ly)
inf. = infinitive
inh. = inhabitant (-s)
intens. = intensive (-ly)
intr. = intransitive (-ly)
invol. = involuntary, involuntarily
irr. = irregular (-ly)
Isr. = Israelite (-s), Israelitish
Jer. = Jerusalem
Lat. = Latin
lit. = literal (-ly)
mean. = meaning
ment. = mental (-ly)
mid. = middle (voice)
mor. = moral (-ly)
mult. = multiplicative
nat. = natural (-ly)
neg. = negative (-ly)
neut. = neuter
obj. = objective (-ly)
obs. = obsolete
or. = origin (-al) (-ly)
Pal. = Palestine
part. = participle
pass. = passive (-ly)
perh. = perhaps
pers. = person (-al) (-ly)
phys. = physical (-ly)
pl. = plural
pref. = prefix (-ed)
pos. = positive (-ly)
prim. = primary
prob. = probably
prol. = prolongation, prolonged
pron. = pronominal (-ly), pronoun
prop. properly
redupl. = reduplicated, reduplication
refl. = reflexive (-ly)
rel. = relative (-ly)
Rom. = Roman
sing. = singular
spec. = special (-ly)
subj. = subjective (-ly)
sup. = superlative (-ly)
tech. = technical (-ly)
term. = termination
trans. = transitive (-ly)
transp. = transposed, transposition
typ. = typical (-ly)
unc. = uncertain
var. = variation, various
voc. = vocative
vol. = voluntarily, voluntary

SIGNS EMPLOYED
+ (addition) denotes a rendering in the A. V. of one or more Gr. words in connection with the one under consideration.
(multiplication) denotes a rendering in the A. V. that results from an idiom peculiar to the Gr.
( ) (parenthesis), in the renderings from the A. V., denotes a word or syllable sometimes given in connection with the principal word to which it is annexed.
[ ] (bracket), in the rendering from the A. V., denotes the inclusion of an additional word in the Gr.
Italics, at the end of a rendering from the A. V., denote an explanation of the variations from the usual form.


THE HEBREW BIBLE

PLAN OF THE BOOK

1. All the original words are treated in their alphabetical Hebrew order, and are numbered regularly from the first to the last, each being known throughout by its appropriate number. This renders reference easy without recourse to the Hebrew characters.
2. Immediately after each word is given its exact equivalent in English letters, according to the system of transliteration laid down in the scheme here following, which is substantially that adopted in the Common English Version, only more consistently and uniformly carried out; so that the word could readily be turned back again into Hebrew from the form thus given it.
3. Next follows the precise pronunciation, according to the usual English mode of sounding syllables, so plainly indicated that none can fail to apprehend and apply it. The most approved sounds are adopted, as laid down in the annexed scheme of articulation, and in such a way that any good Hebraist would immediately recognize the word if so pronounced, notwithstanding the minor variations current among scholars in this respect.
4. Then ensues a tracing of the etymology, radical meaning, and applied signification of the word, justly but tersely analyzed and expressed, with any other important peculiarities in this regard.
5. In the case of proper names, the same method is pursued, and at this point the regular mode of Anglicizing it, after the general style of the Common English Version, is given, and a few words of explanation are added to identify it.
6. Finally (after the punctuation-mark:) are given all the different renderings of the word in the Authorized English Version, arranged in the alphabetical order of the leading terms, and conveniently condensed according to the explanations given below.
By searching out these various renderings in the MAIN CONCORDANCE, to which this Dictionary is designed as a companion, and noting the passages to which the same number corresponding to that of any given Hebrew word is attached in the marginal column, the reader, whether acquainted with the original language or not, will obtain a complete Hebrew Concordance also, expressed in the words of the Common English Version. This is an advantage which no other Concordance or Lexicon affords.

HEBREW ARTICULATION

THE following explanations are sufficient to show the method of transliterating Hebrew words into English adopted in this Dictionary.

1. The Hebrew is read from right to left. The Alphabet consists of 22 letters (and their variations), which are all regarded as consonants, being enunciated by the aid of certain points or marks, mostly beneath the letters, and which serve as vowels. There is no distinction of capitals, italics, etc.
2. The letters are as follows:

Form. Name. Transliteration and Power.
1.            a                    Aleph (aw-lef) unappreciable
2.            b                     Byth (bayth) b
3.            g                      Gymel (ghee-mel) g hard = γ
4.            d                     Dleth (daw-leth) d
5.            h                    Hy (hay) h, often quiescent
6.            w                      Vv (vawv) v, or w quiescent
7.            z                      Zayin (zah-yin) z, as in zeal
8.            x                     Chyth (khayth) German ch = χ (nearly kh)
9.            j                     Tyth (tayth) t = T
10.          y                      Ywd (yode) y, often quiescent
11.          k final $         Kaph (caf) k = q
12.          l                     Lmed (law-med) l
13.          m final ~        Mm (mame) m
14.          n final !           Nwn (noon) n
15.          s                    Smek (saw-mek) s sharp = f
16.          [                    Ayin (ah-yin) peculiar 
17.          p final @        Ph (fay) ph = f = φ
               P                    P (pay) p
18.          c final #        Tsdy (tsaw-day) ts
19.          q                    Qwph (cofe) q = κ = k
20.          r                     Rysh (raysh) r
21.          f                     Syn (seen) s sharp = s= σ
               v                    Shyn (sheen) sh
22.          t                     Thv (thawv) th, as in THin = ϑ
               T                    Tv (tawv) t = j= τ

A point in the bosom of a letter is called Dgsh, and is of two kinds, which must be carefully distinguished.

a. Dgsh len occurs only in the letters t p k d g b (technically vocalized Begad-Kephath,) when they begin a clause or sentence, or are preceded by a consonant sound; and simply has the effect of removing their aspiration.
b. Dgsh fort may occur in any letter except [ x h a r it is equivalent to doubling the letter, and at the same time it removes the aspiration of a Begad-Kephath letter.

ABBREVIATIONS EMPLOYED

abb. = abbreviated, abbreviation
absol. = absolute, absolutely
abstr. = abstract, abstractly
act. = active, actively
adj. = adjective, adjectively
adv. = adverb, adverbial, adverbially
aff. = affix, affixed
affin. = affinity
appar. = apparent, apparently
arch. = architecture, architectural, architecturally
art. = article.
artif. = artificial, artificially
Ass. = Assyrian
A. V. = Authorized Version
Bab. = Babylon, Babylonia, Babylonian
caus. = causative, causatively
Chald. = Chaldaism, Chaldee
collat. = collateral, collaterally
collect. = collective, collectively
comp. = compare, comparative, comparatively, comparison
concr. = concrete, concretely
conjec. = conjecture, conjectural, conjecturally
conjug. = conjugation, conjugational, conjugationally
conjunc. = conjunction, conjunctional, conjunctionally
constr. = construct, construction, constructive, constructively
contr. = contracted, contraction
correl. = correlated, correlation, correlative, correlatively
corresp. = corresponding, correspondingly
def. = definite, definitely
denom. = denominative, denominatively
der. = derivation, derivative, derivatively
desc. = descendant, descendants
E. = East, Eastern
e.g. = exempli grati for example
Eg. = Egypt, Egyptian, Egyptians
ellip. = ellipsis, elliptical, elliptically
equiv. = equivalent, equivalently
err. = erroneous, erroneously, error
esp. = especial, especially
etym. = etymology, etymological, etymologically
euphem. = euphemism, euphemistic, euphemistically
euphon. = euphonically, euphonious
extern. = external, externally
infer. = inference, inferential, inferentially
fem. = feminine
fig. = figurative, figuratively
for. = foreign, foreigner
freq. = frequentative, frequentatively
fut. = future
gen. = general, generally, generical, generically
Gr. = Grcism, Greek
gut. = guttural
Heb. = Hebraism, Hebrew
i.e. = id est that is
ident. = identical, identically
immed. = immediate, immediately
imper. = imperative, imperatively
impl. = implication, implied, impliedly
incept. = inceptive, inceptively
incl. = including, inclusive, inclusively
indef. = indefinite, indefinitely
infin. = infinitive
inhab. = inhabitant, inhabitants
ins. = inserted
intens. = intensive, intensively
intern. = internal, internally
interj. = interjection, interjectional, interjectionally
intr. = intransitive, intransitively
Isr. = Israelite, Israelites, Israelitish
Jerus. = Jerusalem
Levit. = Levitical, Levitically
lit. = literal, literally
marg. = margin, marginal (reading)
masc. = masculine
mean. = meaning
ment. = mental, mentally
mid. = middle
modif. = modified, modification
mor. = moral, morally
mus. = musical
nat. = native, natural, naturally, nature
neg. = negative, negatively
obj. = object, objective, objectively
or. = origin, original, originally
orth. = orthography, orthographical, orthographically
Pal. = Palestine
part. = participle
pass. = passive, passively
patron. = patronymic, patronymically
perh. = perhaps
perm. = permutation (of allied letters)
pers. = person, personal, personally
Pers. = Persia, Persian, Persians
phys. = physical, physically
plur. = plural
poet. = poetry, poetical, poetically
pos. = positive, positively
pref. = prefix, prefixed
prep. = preposition, prepositional, prepositionally
prim. = primitive
prob. = probable, probably
prol. = prolonged, prolongation
pron. = pronominal, pronominally, pronoun
prop. = properly
prox. = proximate, proximately
rad. = radical
recip. = reciprocal, reciprocally
redupl. = reduplicated, reduplication
refl. = reflexive, reflexively
rel. = relative, relatively
relig. = religion, religious, religiously
second. = secondarily, secondary
signif. = signification, signifying
short. = shortened, shorter
sing. = singular
spec. = specific, specifically
streng. = strengthening
subdiv. = subdivision, subdivisional, subdivisionally
subj. = subject, subjective, subjectively
substit. = substituted.
superl. = superlative, superlatively
symb. = symbolical, symbolically
te. = technical, technically
tran. = transitive, transitively
transc. = transcription
transp. = transposed, transposition
unc. = uncertain, uncertainly
var. = variation.

SIGNS EMPLOYED

+ (addition) denotes a rendering in the A. V. of one or more Heb. words in connection with the one under consideration.
(multiplication) denotes a rendering in the A. V. that results from an idiom peculiar to the Heb.
(degree), appended to a Heb. word, denotes a vowel-pointing corrected from that of the text. (This mark is set in Heb. Bibles over syllables in which the vowels of the marg. have been inserted instead of those properly belonging to the text.)
( ) (parenthesis), in the renderings from the A. V., denotes a word or syllable sometimes given in connection with the principal word to which it is annexed.
[ ] (bracket), in the rendering from the A. V., denotes the inclusion of an additional word in the Heb.
Italics, at the end of a rendering from the A. V., denote an explanation of the variations from the usual form.